Text Options for the Visually Impaired Font Size: a- A+ Color: A A A Revert 
Close vision bar
Open vision bar
    Adiar County Schools logo hover effect
    Adair County Primary School Logo hover effect
    Adair County Elementary School Logo hover effect
    Adair County Middle School Logo hover effect
    Adair High School logo hover effect
Objectives and Learning Targets

Learning Targets
Chapters 1-2
Purpose of Historical Study/Primary and Secondary Sources
1. Explain the difference between primary and secondary sources and give examples of each.
 Western Asia and Egypt
2. Define civilization and identify the characteristics of a civilization
3. Explain how geography influenced the development of the early civilizations.
 India and China
4. I can explain the contributions of India and China to religious thought.
5. I can explain how the caste system influenced the lives of people in ancient India.
 Ancient Greece
6. Discuss the contributions of early Greece to Western Civilization

Ancient Rome

7. Summarize how Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire and became the state religion of Rome.
 The World of Islam
1. Describe the life of Muhammad and the basic tenets of Islam
 Emerging Europe and the Byzantine Empire
2. Summarize feudalism
3. Describe the rise of the Germanic and Frankish Kingdoms, the influence of Christianity, and the importance of Charlemagne
 Europe in the Middle Ages
4. Describe advances in farming and industry, the manorial system and the rise of cities
5. Explain the dominant role of the medieval church
6. Describe the various misfortunes that challenged Europe in the 14th century.


The Renaissance

1. List three characteristics of the Renaissance
 The Intellectual and Artistic Renaissance
2. Describe humanism
3. Describe artistic contributions of the Renaissance
 The Protestant Reformation
4. Discuss Christian Humanism
5. Describe Martin Luther’s role in the Protestant Reformation
The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response
6. Discuss religious changes in Switzerland and England
7. Summarize the religious rebirth of the Catholic Church.


Exploration and Expansion

1. Explain the three main motives for exploration
 2. Summarize how Portugal, Spain, the Dutch Republic and England reached new economic heights through worldwide trade.
 Africa in an Age of Transition
3. Describe the impact of European on the people of Africa.
4. Describe traditional African political systems
Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion

1. describe the causes of the French Wars of Religion and how they were resolved
2. Summarize how, in the 16th and 17th centuries, many European rulers extended their power and borders.
 Social Crisis, War and Revolution
3. Explain how the Thirty Years’ War ended the unity of the Holy Roman Empire.
4. Relate how democratic ideals were strengthened as a result of the English and Glorious Revolutions.
 Response to Crisis: Absolutism
5. Explain absolutism in relation to Louis XIV, Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great
6. Distinguish between an absolute monarchy and a constitutional monarchy.
 The World of European Culture
7. Explain the significant movements in art, literature, and philosophy during the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Scientific Revolution
1. Describe the scientific advancements of the 17th and 18th centuries and their impact on societies.
 The Enlightenment
2. Describe the conditions that led to the Enlightenment
 The Impact of the Enlightenment
3. Explain new philosophies and social changes that took place during the Enlightenment.
4. Summarize how the Enlightenment thought influenced politics of Europe in the 18th century.
 Colonial Empires and the American Revolution
4. Analyze why the American colonies revolted against Great Britain and formed a new nation.
The French Revolution Begins
1. Specify why social inequality and economic problems contributed to the French Revolution
2. Explain why radicals, Catholic priests, nobles and the lower classes opposed the new order.
 Radical Revolution and Reaction
3. Identify and explain the causes of the Reign of Terror.
 The Age of Napoleon
4. Summarize how napoleon built and lost an empire.
5. Discuss how nationalism spread as a result of the French Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
1. Explain why coal and steam replaced wind and water as new sources of energy and power.
2. Describe the growth of cities as people moved from the country to work in factories.
 Reaction and Revolution
3. Summarize how the great powers worked to maintain a conservative order throughout Europe.
4. Characterize the forces of liberalism and nationalism and their continued growth, which led to revolution in 1848.
 National Unification and the National State
5. Report how the rise of nationalism contributed to the unification of Italy and Germany
6. Desrcibe developments in the US and Canada.
 Culture: Romanticism and Realism
7. Identify and explain characteristics of romanticism and realism.
8. Describe events in the new age of science.

The Growth of Industrial Prosperity

1. Describe how new sources of energy and consumer products transformed the standard of living for all social classes in many parts of Europe.
2. Summarize how working-class leaders sued Marx’s ideas to form socialist policies.
 The Emergence of Mass Society
3. Discuss how new opportunities for women and the working class improved their lives.
 The National State and Democracy
4. Discuss how new political parties and labor unions challenged the governments of Western Europe.
5. Explain how international rivalries led to conflict in the Balkans and World War I.
Toward the Modern Consciousness
6. Explain how developments in science and psychology changed how people saw themselves and the world.
7. Explain how extreme nationalism and racism led to an increase in anti-Semitism.

Colonial Rule in Southeast Asia

1. Describe how through Imperialism, colonial powers took over and ruled other territories.
 Empire Building in Africa
2. Discuss how great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Portugal placed virtually all of Africa under European control.
3. Describe how nationalism gave subjects means for seeking their freedom.
 British Rule In India
4. Identify and discuss Mohandas Gandhi and his advocacy of nonviolent resistance.
 Nation Building in Latin America
5. Explain how Latin American countries served as a source of raw materials for Europe and the United States.
The Road to World War I
1. Discuss how alliances, militarism, nationalism, and a crisis in the Balkans led to World War I.
2. Explain why Serbia’s determination to become a large, independent state initiated hostilities with Austria-Hungary.
 The War
3. Describe the stalemate on the Western front and events on the Eastern front.
4. Explain innovations in warfare.
 The Russian Revolution
5. Explain how poor leadership led to the fall of the czarist regime in Russia.
6. Relate how the Bolsheviks came to power under Lenin. 
7. Describe how Communist forces triumphed over anti-Communist forces. 
 End of the War
8. Explain the Allies’ victory.
9. List the major provisions of the Treaty of Versailles

The Futile Search for Stability

1. Explain why peace was short-lived after World War I.
2. Describe how a global economic depression weakened Western democracies after 1929.
 The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes
3. Distinguish between dictatorship and totalitarianism.
4. Discuss how Mussolini, Stalin, and Franco, came to power.
 Hitler and Nazi Germany
5. Characterize the totalitarian state in Germany established by Hitler and the Nazi party.
6. Describe Hitler’s anti-Semitic policies and activities.
 Cultural and Intellectual Trends
7. Relate how radios and movies were popular forms of entertainment that were used to spread political messages.

Nationalism in the Middle East

1. Explain how nationalism led to the creation of the modern states of Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.
2. Specify how the Balfour Declaration made Palestine a national Jewish homeland.
 Nationalism in Africa and Asia
3. Characterize how Soviet agents worked to spread communism around the world.
 Revolutionary Chaos in China
4. Discuss Mao Zedong’s belief that revolution in China would be led by peasants and not the urban class.
Paths to War
1. Identify the steps taken by Germany and Japan that led to the beginning of WWII.
 The Course of WWII
2. Discuss how the bombing of Pearl Harbor created a global war between the Allies and Axis Powers.
3. List the major events in the last years of the war.
 The New Order and the Holocaust
4. Discuss how Hitler’s philosophies led to the Holocaust.
5. Explain the results of the Holocaust
 The Homefront and the Aftermath of the War
6. Discuss the lasting impression of WWII on civilian populations.
7. Summarize how the end of WWII created a new set of problems for the Allies as the West came into conflict with the Soviet Union.


Development of the Cold War
1. Describe the develop of the Cold War
2. Describe the development of the Cuban Missile Crisis
3. Explain why, as the Cold War developed, European nations were forced to support one of the two major powers.
 The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
4. Describe the policies of de-Stalinization initiated by Khrushchev.
5. Discuss the revolts and protests faced by the Soviet Union in its attempt to gain and maintain control over Eastern Europe.
 Western Europe and North America
6. Discuss how postwar western society rebuilt their economies and communities.
7. Explain how shifting social structures in the West led to upheaval and change.

Decline of the Soviet Union

1. List and explain upheavals in the Soviet Union that led to its disintegration.
 Eastern Europe
2. Describe how policy of Gorbechev created opportunity for revolution.
3. Characterize the massive demonstrations that peacefully ended some Communist regimes and violence that ended others.
 Europe and North America
4. dentify the domestic problems that arose in the U.S., Great Britain, France, Germany, and Canada.
Western Society and Culture
5. Identify and explain recent changes in women’s roles, art, science, technology and religion.
6.Describe popular culture

Conflict in the Middle East
1. Desrcibe how the Cold War and nationalism affected politics in the Middle East
2. Identify steps and people involved in the Middle East peace process
 Communist China
3. Describe the socialist society in China established by Mao Zedong
4. Describe China’s role in the Cold War and Korean War.

Adair County Schools1204 Greensburg Street
Columbia, KY 42728

View Map & Directions
Phone: 270-384-2476
Fax: 270-384-5841